Abstract The study of selective attention and its influence on communication in patients with Rett Syndrome (RS), in which communication abilities are impaired is particularly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse attention and communication abilities in RS. A sample of 20 children (10 girls with RS and 10 control girls, matched on mental age) were tested on both attention and non-verbal communication abilities. Results showed that girls with RS have specific deficits in the ability to attend selectively to the relevant sources of information, and that they pay attention to irrelevant stimuli. Results related to non-verbal communication partially show specific impairment in girls with RS. Educational implications are discussed.