Abstract The effect of melatonin on reproductive function in the rat was studied. Reproductive organ weights and sex hormone levels were compared between sighted controls and animals which were either blinded, blinded and pinealectomized or blinded and immunized against circulating melatonin. Circulating androgens as measured by accessory sexual organ weights were significantly reduced by blinding. This effect was reversed by pinealectomy but not by immunization. Blinding also increased pineal melatonin levels but there were no differences in the plasma levels of luteinizing hormone. Circulating testosterone levels and pineal melatonin levels of immunized animals did not differ from those of blinded controls. These findings confirm reports that pineal stimulation by blinding enhances pineal melatonin content and inhibits accessory sex organ development. Circulating melatonin does not appear to be the mediator of the stimulated pineal's antigonadal effects in the rat since, in contrast to pinealectomy, neutralization of circulating melatonin failed to reverse accessory organ regression.