Abstract We recently reported that neuronostatin, a novel neuropeptide, biphasically increased mean arterial pressure, first through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system followed by the release of vasopressin. In those experiments, we found that centrally administered neuronostatin increased plasma vasopressin levels only 2–3 times greater than levels observed in saline-treated controls, and that the increase in mean arterial pressure (approximately 15mm Hg) could be blocked by pretreatment with a V1-vasopressin antagonist. Here we report the relationship between two to three fold elevations in plasma vasopressin levels and concomitant changes in mean arterial pressure in conscious, unrestrained male rats. We injected increasing doses of vasopressin (5, 20, and 100ng/kg, intra-arterially) and measured both changes in plasma vasopressin levels and the elevation in mean arterial pressure achieved. At 5-min post injection, plasma levels of vasopressin and mean arterial pressures were similar to those observed following central neuronostatin administration in our earlier study. Thus we conclude that small increases in circulating vasopressin levels can result in significant elevations in mean arterial pressure at least in the conscious rat.