Synchronous telecommunication networks, distributed control systems and integrated circuits have its accuracy of operation dependent on the existence of a reliable time basis signal extracted from the line data stream and acquirable to each node. In this sense, the existence of a sub-network (inside the main network) dedicated to the distribution of the clock signals is crucially important. There are different solutions for the architecture of the time distribution sub-network and choosing one of them depends on cost, precision, reliability and operational security. In this work we expose: (i) the possible time distribution networks and their usual topologies and arrangements. (ii) How parameters of the network nodes can affect the reachability and stability of the synchronous state of a network. (iii) Optimizations methods for synchronous networks which can provide low cost architectures with operational precision, reliability and security. (C) 2011 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.