The effects of the residual stress field resulting from shot peening and the indentation technique were investigated in relation to fatigue crack closure and crack growth behaviour. Compact Specimens of 20NiCrMo2 were used in this investigation. The regions of residual stress field were located behind the fatigue crack tip. Crack closure behaviour was measured with back face strain and crack mouth opening displacement gauges. Crack length was monitored by the compliance and microscopic methods. Residual stress was measured by the incremental hole-drilling method. Subsequently the closure level, propagation rate and resulting crack growth retardation were studied. Crack closure and attendant growth retardation were shown to be dependent on the residual stress field. Residual stresses produced by shot peening and indentation were both compressive. The maximum value of residual stress for both operations were on the surface and at the same intensity. However, the residual stress induced by the indentation technique was deeper. The results showed that the closure effect was stronger in the case of indentation technique.