Nrf2 regulates the expression of numerous cytoprotective genes in mammalian cells. The activity of Nrf2 is regulated by the Cul3 adaptor Keap1, yet little is known regarding mechanisms of regulation of Keap1 itself. Here, we have used immunopurification of Keap1 and mass spectrometry, in addition to immunoblotting, to identify sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) as a cellular binding partner of Keap1. SQSTM1 serves as a scaffold in various signaling pathways and shuttles polyubiquitinated proteins to the proteasomal and lysosomal degradation machineries. Ectopic expression of SQSTM1 led to a decrease in the basal protein level of Keap1 in a panel of cells. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of SQSTM1 resulted in an increase in the protein level of Keap1 and a concomitant decrease in the protein level of Nrf2 in the absence of changes in Keap1 or Nrf2 mRNA levels. The increased protein level of Keap1 in cells depleted of SQSTM1 by RNAi was linked to a decrease in its rate of degradation; the half-life of Keap1 was almost doubled by RNAi depletion of SQSTM1. The decreased level of Nrf2 in cells depleted of SQSTM1 by RNAi was associated with decreases in the mRNA levels, protein levels, and function of several Nrf2-regulated cell defense genes. SQSTM1 was dispensable for the induction of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, as Nrf2 activation by tert-butylhydroquinone or iodoacetamide was not affected by RNAi depletion of SQSTM1. These findings demonstrate a physical and functional interaction between Keap1 and SQSTM1 and reveal an additional layer of regulation in the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway.