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Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items

Authors
Journal
Journal of Memory and Language
0749-596X
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
59
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
Keywords
  • Mixed-Effects Models
  • Crossed Random Effects
  • Quasi-F
  • By-Item
  • By-Subject

Abstract

Abstract This paper provides an introduction to mixed-effects models for the analysis of repeated measurement data with subjects and items as crossed random effects. A worked-out example of how to use recent software for mixed-effects modeling is provided. Simulation studies illustrate the advantages offered by mixed-effects analyses compared to traditional analyses based on quasi-F tests, by-subjects analyses, combined by-subjects and by-items analyses, and random regression. Applications and possibilities across a range of domains of inquiry are discussed.

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