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Insights into the Pathogenesis of Takotsubo Syndrome, Which with Persuasive Reasons Should Be Regarded as an Acute Cardiac Sympathetic Disease Entity

ISRN Cardiology
Publication Date
  • Biology
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacology


The pathogenesis of takotsubo syndrome (TS) has not been established yet. The literature data dealing with the pathogenesis of TS are abundant but scattered among different medical specialities. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and other acute intracranial diseases and injuries are among the important and currently well-recognized trigger factors for TS. In both induced and spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages, signs suggestive of increased cardiac sympathetic overactivity have been documented. Surgical and pharmacological sympathectomy has shown to have protective cardiac effects in both animal and human studies. Increase in local release of norepinephrine from the heart of patients with TS has been measured. Signs of both cardiac sympathetic denervation and myocardial lesions adjacent to the cardiac nerve terminals have been seen. Furthermore, the systematized and typically circumferential pattern of ventricular wall motion abnormality is incongruent with the coronary artery supply region and appears most likely to follow the cardiac sympathetic nerve distribution. In conclusion, compelling literature data support the hypothesis that acute cardiac sympathetic disruption and norepinephrine seethe and spillover is causing TS in predisposed patients. TS is most probably an acute cardiac sympathetic disease entity causing myocardial stunning in which takotsubo is one among other cardiac image study findings.

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