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Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) Is Produced by and Influences the Proliferative Response of Xenopus laevis Lymphocytes

Developmental Immunology
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Both TGF/β2 and 5 have been described in the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis and have been cloned from the tadpole-derived fibroblast cell line, XTC. Because TGFβ has such a profound inhibitory effect on the mammalian immune system, this study was performed to determine whether TGFβ: (a) has any in vitro effects on the growth of Xenopus lymphoblasts, and (b) is produced by mitogen-activated Xenopus lymphocytes.Following stimulation with mitogen or alloantigen, T lymphocytes from Xenopus secrete a T-cell growth factor (TCGF) that is functionally homologous to mammalian interleukin-2 (IL-2). Both recombinant human TGFβ1 and Xenopus TGFβ5 inhibit TCGF-induced proliferation of Xenopus splenic blasts and this inhibition can be reversed with anti-pan TGFβ antiserum. The Xenopus mitogen-induced saturated ammonium sulfate precipitated TCGF-containing supernatant (SAS TCGF SN) also contains latent TGFβ as assayed on mink lung fibroblasts and Xenopus splenic blasts, and experiments utilizing anti-TGFβ antiserum showed that only TGFβ5 is present in this supernatant.

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