OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the marginal adaptation of composite resin onlays in primary teeth previously treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (pulp irrigant) using two different resin luting agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty extracted sound primary molars had their crowns prepared in a standardized machine and were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): G1 (1% NaOCl irrigation+EnForce); G2 (EnForce); G3 (1% NaOCl irrigation+Rely X); G4 (Rely X). The onlays were made with Z250 composite resin on plaster models. After luting, the tooth/restoration set was stored in 100% relative humidity at 37ºC for 24 h and finished with Soflex discs. Caries Detector solution was applied at the tooth/restoration interface for 5 s. The specimens were washed and four digital photos of each tooth were then taken. The extents of the gaps were measured with Image Tool 3.0 software. The percentage data were submitted to a Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). The Relative Risk test analyzed the chance of a gap presence correlated to each group. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among the groups. The relative risk test revealed that some groups were more apt to have a presence of gaps than others. CONCLUSION: Neither the 1% NaOCl treatment nor the resin luting agents caused any alterations in the dental substrate that could have influenced the marginal adaptation of composite onlays in primary teeth.