We investigated the cortical bone changes in 35 patients with total hip arthroplasty operated on only for osteoarthritis with more than 10 years of follow-up and with nonrevised femoral components and without radiologic signs of loosening. The mean follow-up was 16 ± 5 years. The thicknesses of femoral cortices were measured medially and laterally at 6 levels from the first postoperative and the last follow-up x-rays. A comparison with 10 patients who had a nonoperated contralateral hip was performed. We found a significant decrease in cortical thicknesses in total hip arthroplasty. The cortical thinning was significant at all periprosthetic levels but less expressed distally. Prosthetic femora were associated with greater cortical thinning as compared with the contralateral nonoperated femora, exceeding that caused by natural aging.