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Rapid Catalyst Screening by a Continuous-Flow Microreactor Interfaced with Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Authors
Journal
The Journal of Organic Chemistry
0022-3263
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Volume
75
Issue
16
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/jo100981e
Keywords
  • Article

Abstract

A high-throughput screening system for homogeneous catalyst discovery has been developed by integrating a continuous-flow capillary-based microreactor with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) for fast online analysis. Reactions are conducted in distinct and stable zones in a flow stream that allows for time and temperature regulation. UHPLC detection at high temperature allows high throughput online determination of substrate, product, and byproduct concentrations. We evaluated the efficacies of a series of soluble acid catalysts for an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts addition into an acyliminium ion intermediate within one day and with minimal material investment. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction time, and reaction temperature were also screened. This system exhibited high reproducibility for high-throughput catalyst screening and allowed several acid catalysts for the reaction to be identified. Major side products from the reactions were determined through off-line mass spectrometric detection. Er(OTf)3, the catalyst that showed optimal efficiency in the screening, was shown to be effective at promoting the cyclization reaction on a preparative scale.

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