For the whole 20th century, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) challenged the international community efforts to control this zoonotic disease. Asia and Africa accommodate the largest BTB-infected zebu cattle in the world. Similar to other few Asian nations, Iran has been actively running its BTB-control plan for the last four decades. BTB however, is still a number-one health concern for Iranian veterinary practitioners and also farmers across the country. Why is that? Here we have addressed this question in the light of most recent epidemiological data as well as microbiology and molecular biology observations.