Abstract The neuropeptide substance P (SP), a member of the tachykinin family, has stimulatory effects on various cell types at nanomolar concentrations. SP has also direct effects on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). However, unlike other cells, stimulation of PMNs requires extremely high concentrations of the peptide (>10 μM), suggesting that direct PMN activation by SP is not physiologically relevant. By measuring primed stimulation of PMNs, we now demonstrate potent synergistic effects of nanomolar doses of SP on the migratory and cytotoxic functions of human PMNs stimulated by fMLP and C5a. This synergism between SP and chemotactic peptides reveals a new regulatory activity of SP and suggests that neurogenic stimuli may prepare neutrophils for an exaggerated inflammatory response to other phlogistic mediators.