The present study investigated the prevalence of poor self-perceived oral health and its association with oral health, general health and socioeconomic factors among elderly individuals from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 871 elderly individuals enrolled in the Health, Wellbeing and Aging cohort study. Self-perceived oral health was measured by the question: "How would you rate your oral health?". Most subjects self-rated their oral health as good. Among dentate individuals, poor oral health was related to depression, poor self-rated health, dental treatment, dental checkups and the psychosocial sub-scale scores of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index. Edentulous individuals were more likely to report poor oral health, whereas those with higher psychosocial scores were less likely to report poor self-rated oral health. Poor self-rated oral health is associated with general health factors and the psychosocial impact of oral health on quality of life, regardless of socioeconomic and clinical health measures.