Abstract Purpose We determined therapeutic and operative cost efficacy of endoscopic collagen injection for vesicoureteral reflux. Materials and Methods We performed a multicenter study of 10 male and 23 female sequential patients (45 renal units) with vesicoureteral reflux and a surgical indication. Patients were skin tested with collagen and when negative, they underwent endoscopic injection. Renal ultrasound/ cystography was done 3 months after treatment. Cost analysis was performed at 1 institution. Results Reflux was grade I in 2 renal units, II in 18, III in 15 and IV in 10. The majority of cases were single systems with primary reflux. We performed 1 treatment in 32 renal units, 2 in 6, 3 in 6 and 4 in 1. Cure was evident in 31 of 38 renal units (81.6 percent) and 21 of 27 patients (78 percent) 3 months after the last injection. Patient morbidity was minimal. Operative cost per renal unit was $1,599.68 for collagen injection and $9,144.47 for reimplantation. Conclusions Endoscopic injection of collagen is effective treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Furthermore, it causes minimal morbidity and may effect cost savings in health care management.