Assessing the habitability of deep-sea sediments undergoing compaction, compression, and subduction at convergent margins adds to our understanding of the limits of the terrestrial biosphere. In this work, we report exploratory biomarker data on sediments obtained at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1253, 1254, and 1255 during drilling at the Costa Rica subduction trench and forearc sedimentary wedge. The samples selected for postcruise biomarker analyses were located within intervals of potentially enhanced fluid flow within the décollement and sedimentary wedge fault zones (Sites 1254 and 1255) and within basal carbonates at the reference site (Site 1253). The passage of fluids that are geochemically distinct from ambient interstitial water provides a disequilibrium setting that may enhance habitability. Biomarker data show low levels of microbial biomass in subseafloor sediments sampled at the Costa Rica convergent margin as deep as ~370 meters below seafloor.