Abstract Vineyard pruning residues are a potential resource of biomass for energy. Nevertheless the possible presence of agrochemicals in this fuel could entail negative environmental consequences during its combustion. In order to verify its sustainability for energy production, a case study was conducted: biomass from common and organic vineyards in Trento Province (Northern Italy) was collected, analyzed, and burned as comminuted fuel in a 180MJ domestic boiler equipped with a micro electrostatic filter; wood chips and pellets produced with similar raw material (vineyard residues and spruce wood) were used as reference. Flue gases composition was monitored with particular attention to heavy metal contamination. The results, to be considered as preliminary, show that vineyard residues had higher emissions compared to the remaining fuels, including organic vineyard residues, but always within the limits prescribed in Italy. In terms of total heavy metal emissions no significant differences could be detected among the tested fuels. The electrostatic filter proved to be effective in the reduction of total fly ash emissions as well as the use of pelletized biomass.