Abstract A carbohydrate-containing fraction was extracted from the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata by a phenol-water procedure. Ion-exchange chromatography separated this fraction into three components: a polysaccharide which was not retained on the column; RNA which eluted upon addition of salt; and, another polysaccharide which eluted upon addition of detergent. The unretained fraction was shown to be composed solely of d-mannose. The mannan, which was heterodisperse on Sephadex G-100, had an average molecular weight of approx. 14 000 as based on analysis of reducing groups. The detergent-eluted material yielded arabinose and galactose upon acid hydrolysis. The arabinogalactan was excluded from Sephadex G-100 and Sephacryl S-200 molecular sieve columns, suggesting a molecular weight ≥ 200 000. Cell fractionation studies showed the bulk of extractable polysaccharide was associated with a particulate fraction. Further determination of the cellular localization of the polysaccharide was accomplished by employing a specific antiserum prepared from rabbits immunized with the polysaccharide extract. The cell surface localization of the arabinogalactan was demonstrated by cell agglutination studies as well as immunocytochemical techniques using fluorescein and ferritin conjugated antibodies.