Abstract Dietary fish oil, vitamin E, and probucol have been considered in a variety of human and experimental models of kidney disease. Using subtotal nephrectomized cholesterol-fed rats as a model for progressive kidney disease, we examined the effect of 5% dietary fish oil, or a combination of 5% dietary fish oil with 500 IU vitamin E/kg diet or 1% probucol on renal injury. Three-month-old Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet (C group) or a cholesterol supplemented (2%) diet (Ch group) containing either fish oil (FO group) or fish oil plus vitamin E (FO+E group) or fish oil plus probucol (FO+P group). After 4 weeks of dietary treatment, the right kidney was electrocoagulated and the left kidney nephrectomized. After 8 weeks, 24-hour urine was collected before sacrifice. No effect of the dietary treatments was noted on serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, or proteinuria, except that proteinuria was highest in FO+P group. Rats receiving the cholesterol diets had higher serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol ( P < 0.05). In contrast, rats in the FO+P group had the lowest serum total cholesterol and LDL+VLDL cholesterol among all groups. The FO group had 26% lower kidney α-tocopherol concentrations than the C group. However, inclusion of vitamin E in the diet (FO+E group) increased the kidney α-tocopherol status to a level comparable to that in the C group, whereas inclusion of probucol in fish oil diet (FO+P group) did not improve the kidney α-tocopherol status. Rats fed the cholesterol diet had a 2.5-fold higher glomerular segmental sclerosis (GSS) score and 1.5-fold higher glomerular macrophage (GM) subpopulation than the C group. These effects of the cholesterol diet were ameliorated by a fish oil diet (FO group: GSS by 30%, GM by 24%). The inclusion of vitamin E in the fish oil diet (FO+E group) did not further improve the GSS score or GM subpopulation. However, inclusion of probucol in fish oil diet (FO+P group) lowered the GSS score by 73% and reduced GM subpopulation by 83% compared with the Ch group. These remarkable changes can be attributed to the powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of probucol. Our findings indicate that progression of glomerular sclerosis in the rat remnant kidney model of progressive kidney disease can be significantly modulated with fish oil treatment.