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Differences in sex-related bleeding and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2) registry

Elsevier Inc.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.07.012


Background Bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is more common in women than in men. However, the relationship of sex and bleeding with outcomes is less well studied. Methods We examined the sex-related differences in the incidence of bleeding and its association with in-hospital outcomes among 96,637 patients undergoing PCI enrolled in the BMC2 registry (2010-2012). Results Women had higher bleeding rate than did men (3.9% vs 1.8%) and thus received more blood transfusions (59% vs 41%). Both men (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, 95% CI 1.70-2.97) and women (OR 3.13, 95% CI 2.42-4.07) who bled had higher risk-adjusted death compared with their counterparts without bleeding. Although there was no difference in adjusted mortality between women and men without bleeding (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.32), among patients who bled, adjusted death was higher in women (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47). Among patients with bleeding, transfusion was associated with similar increased risk of death in both men (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.23-3.25) and women (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.31-3.63) compared with their counterparts without transfusion(s). Conclusions Post-PCI bleeding was more common and associated with higher-than-expected in-hospital death in women compared with men with bleeding. This trend for higher death in women with bleeding was independent of transfusion. Quality efforts geared toward reducing bleeding in general, with a special focus on women, need to be explored to help reduce post PCI-bleeding and mortality and decrease sex-related disparity in adverse events.

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