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Effects of different annuloplasty ring types on mitral leaflet tenting area during acute myocardial ischemia

Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.10.015
  • Biology
  • Medicine


Objective The study objective was to quantify the effects of different annuloplasty rings on mitral leaflet septal-lateral tenting areas during acute myocardial ischemia. Methods Radiopaque markers were implanted along the central septal-lateral meridian of the mitral valve in 30 sheep: 1 each to the septal and lateral aspects of the mitral annulus and 4 and 2 along the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets, respectively. Ten true-sized Carpentier-Edwards Physio, Edwards IMR ETLogix, and GeoForm annuloplasty rings (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) were inserted in a releasable fashion. Marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with ring inserted at baseline (RING_BL) and after 90 seconds of left circumflex artery occlusion (RING_ISCH). After ring release, another dataset was acquired before (No_Ring_BL) and after left circumflex artery occlusion (No_Ring_ISCH). Anterior and posterior mitral leaflet tenting areas were computed at mid-systole from sums of marker triangles with the midpoint between the annular markers being the vertex for all triangles. Results Compared with No_Ring_BL, mitral regurgitation grades and all tenting areas significantly increased with No_Ring_ISCH. Compared with No_Ring_ISCH, (1) all rings significantly prevented mitral regurgitation and reduced all tenting areas; (2) Edwards IMR ETLogix and GeoForm rings reduced posterior mitral leaflet area, but not anterior mitral leaflet tenting area, to a significantly greater extent than the Carpentier-Edwards Physio ring; and (3) Edwards IMR ETLogix and GeoForm rings affected tenting areas similarly. Conclusions In response to acute left ventricular ischemia, disease-specific functional/ischemic mitral regurgitation rings (Edwards IMR ETLogix, GeoForm) more effectively reduced posterior mitral leaflet area, but not anterior mitral leaflet tenting area, compared with true-sized physiologic rings (Carpentier-Edwards Physio). Despite its radical 3-dimensional shape and greater amount of mitral annular septal-lateral downsizing, the GeoForm ring did not reduce tenting areas more than the Edwards IMR ETLogix ring, suggesting that further reduction in tenting areas in patients with FMR/IMR may not be effectively achieved on an annular level.

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