Although prostate cancer can be effectively treated, recurrent or residual disease after therapy is not uncommon and is usually detected by a rise in prostate-specific antigen. Patients with biochemical prostate-specific antigen relapse should undergo a prompt search for the presence of local recurrence or distant metastatic disease, each requiring different forms of therapy. Various imaging modalities and image-guided procedures may be used in the evaluation of these patients. Literature on the indications and usefulness of these radiologic studies and procedures in specific clinical settings is reviewed. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.