This paper examines whether social security programs induce a withdrawal of the elderly from the labor force and create jobs for the young in Japan. The key messages are summarized as follows. First, our historical overview suggests that young unemployment issues have not motivated social security reforms and that changes in provisions are not endogenous. Second, employment of the young tends to be positively, not negatively, associated with the LFP of the old. Third, an increase in the inducement to retire significantly discourages the old from staying in the labor force, but does not create jobs for the young.