Abstract A new direct gas chromatography procedure (headspace solid phase microextraction) was developed for the quantitative determination of methanol in biodiesel. The analysis was performed by exposing a carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber assembly to the headspace of the biodiesel sample. The gas chromatography used a HP-5 capillary column and flame ionization detection. A polynomial relationship was observed between the methanol concentration and its peak area. This method showed good reproducibility (average relative standard deviation 7.06%) and recovery (average recovery 100.2%).