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Characterizing an Agar/Gelatin Phantom for Image Guided Dosing and Feedback Control of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

Authors
Journal
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
0301-5629
Publisher
Elsevier
Volume
39
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2012.09.016
Keywords
  • Ultrasound
  • High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (Hifu)
  • Tissue Mimicking Phantom
  • Hydrogel
  • Temperature Dependence

Abstract

Abstract The temperature dependence of an agar/gelatin phantom was evaluated. The purpose was to predict the material property response to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for developing ultrasound guided dosing and targeting feedback. Changes in attenuation, sound speed, shear modulus and thermal properties with temperature were examined from 20°C to 70°C for 3 weeks post-manufacture. The attenuation decreased with temperature by a power factor of 0.15. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat all increased linearly with temperature for a total change of approximately 16%, 10% and 6%, respectively. Sound speed had a parabolic dependence on temperature similar to that of water. Initially, the shear modulus irreversibly declined with even a slight increase in temperature. Over time, the gel maintained its room temperature shear modulus with moderate heating. A stable phantom was achieved within 2 weeks post-manufacture that possessed quasi-reversible material properties up to nearly 55°C.

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