Abstract Objective: This controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of short-term enteral nutrient supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients using a high-calorie and high-protein blend formula (low-cost home-prepared [HP] blend or a commercially available supplement) and to study its effect on selected parameters of nutritional status. The acceptability and palatability of the HP blend formula, ease of use, and cost were also assessed in comparison with the commercial nutritional supplement (CNS). Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Hemodialysis (HD) unit of a tertiary referral care hospital in Southern India. Patients: Nondiabetic adult MHD patients with no intercurrent illness, on regular thrice weekly MHD for at least 1 month before recruitment, with a body mass index (BMI) <20 and a serum albumin level of <4.0 g/dL. Patients were randomized into control group and experimental group, the latter in turn to recieve either CNS or HP blend. Intervention: The control group received appropriate monitoring, including dietary recall and counselling for the prescribed diet (protein intake of 1.2 g/kgIBW/d and energy of 35 to 45 kcal/kgIBW/d) but no specific post-HD supplement. Patients in the supplement group received the respective supplement post-HD (providing 500 kcal and 15 g protein) for 1 month in addition to the monitored diet prescription. Main Outcome Measures: (1) Nutritional status parameters, BMI and serum albumin; (2) functional status on a 10-point Karnofsky scale; (3) adverse metabolic effects, hyperphosphatemia at start and end of study; and (4) subjective scoring for appetite, and acceptability of and tolerance to supplement. Results: Both groups showed an improvement in dry weight and BMI. In addition, the supplement group showed a significant increase in serum albumin level and functional scoring. Mild hyperphosphatemia occurred in the supplement group. An increase in baseline food intake was seen in the control group, but not in the supplemented group. No intolerance was reported to either supplement. Conclusion: Enteral nutrient supplementation was shown to bring about a significant improvement in serum albumin level even in a short-term study. Use of an HP supplement was beneficial, acceptable, and inexpensive. © 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.