Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical regions and is associated with a variety of clinical syndromes that may lead to severe morbidity. Over the past 25 years, therapy and control of schistosomiasis has come to rely heavily on one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). This reliance is of concern should widespread treatment failure arise, particularly as measures are being undertaken to increase PZQ's availability. This review summarizes the use, possible modes of action and limitations of PZQ, and recent attempts to derive synthetic analogs. Alternative artemisinin-based chemotherapies that have shown applicability in certain disease settings are also similarly examined. Looking forward, the review highlights some of the more experimental anti-schistosomals being evaluated (e.g. the trioxolanes), including those where knowledge of the parasite target (e.g. cysteine proteases and hemozoin formation) is more defined.