This paper aims at extending some recent publications about the relationship between antidumping filings and macroeconomic factors by comparing the US and the EU (Knetter et Prusa, 2003; Feinberg, 2005). Results of our estimations confirm that the real exchange rate exerts a similar influence in the two regions. Fluctuations in the real GDP influence antidumping filings only in the US. On the contrary, the evolution of industrial production does not play an important role in the US, while its impact is important in the EU. The reinforcement of international competition appears to significantly increase antidumping filings in the US while this relationship turns out not to be significant in the EU. Finally, some of the most important differences between the US and the EU seem to be explainable by the differences of rules and practices implemented by the regulatory authorities.