Summary : Listening comprehension in first-grade skilled and less-skilled comprehenders for written texts In line with Nation and Snowling's (1997, 1999) position, two experiments with first-grade children (mean age : 6;9) examined the hypothesis that less-skilled comprehenders in a reading task have language difficulties in high-level processes, such as processing of anaphors. Reading and listening comprehension were measured by means of a global test. With skilled and less-skilled comprehenders in the reading test, the on-line processing of three types of anaphor (repeated noun, general noun and pronoun) was investigated in a listening situation, by means of an error-detection paradigm. Error-detection performance was better and faster if the anaphor was solved. In experiment 1, two types of errors were used : phonological errors and phonologico-semantic errors. In experiment 2, only phonological errors were used, the phonemic distance between the phoneme-source and the phoneme-target in the non-word being low or high. In the two experiments, reading comprehension and listening comprehension were strongly correlated. Less-skilled comprehenders showed markedly lower oral performance than skilled comprehenders. In experiment 1, the percentage of detection was lower in less-skilled comprehenders and detection time was similar in the two groups. For phonologico-semantic errors, detection time was longer for general nouns in less-skilled comprehenders. In experiment 2, the percentage of detection was lower and detection time was longer in less-skilled comprehenders, for low and high distant errors. Performance did not vary as a function of type of anaphor, for skilled or for less-skilled comprehenders. These data did not support the hypothesis that less-skilled comprehenders have an impairment in on-line processing of anaphors in a listening situation. However, a qualitative analysis showed specifie difficulties in less-skilled comprehenders. Results were interpreted in terms ofthe « quality » of lexical representations (Perfetti & Hart, 2001). The paradigm used for investigating the processing of anaphors was discussed. Key words : reading comprehension difficulties in children, listening comprehension, on-line processing of anaphors.