Abstract In this paper we describe a 160-kDa protein (p160) which is present in the nuclear matrix of rat, mouse, and human cells. Biochemical and ultrastructural analysis shows that p160 is associated with the internal matrix and is not present in the lamina-pore complex. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the protein is part of the extranucleolar, fibrogranular network of the nuclear matrix. During an in vivo 42 °C heat treatment of HeLa cells, A431 human epidermoid cells, and T24 human bladder carcinoma cells, p160 transiently formed large clusters inside the nucleus. These p160 clusters are associated with the nuclear matrix network, as judged by immunolabeling on isolated nuclear matrices. The percentage of cells showing p160 clusters increased proportionally with longer heat treatments, reaching a maximum after a period of 3 h. At this time 70 ± 5% of the cells displayed these clusters. Clustering decreased after longer heat treatments and the anti-p160 staining pattern became diffuse granular again. Other nuclear components, such as the A1 antigen of hnRNP (ribonucleoprotein), the Sm antigen of snRNPs, and lamins A and C, did not cluster during the 42 °C treatment, indicating that this reallocation is characteristic for the p160 matrix protein. These results demonstrate that p160 is an internal nuclear matrix element with a dynamic spatial distribution.