Abstract Research was conducted to remedy the lack of information on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the seed and carvone (a potato sprouting inhibitor) production of dill under Dutch conditions. From two trials conducted in 1995 on fertile loamy soils it can be concluded that dill is able to efficiently take up the available nitrogen from dry soil. Due to a decrease of the harvest index, the highest biomass production, as a response to a high nitrogen rate, did not result in the highest seed yield. An increase of the nitrogen rate accelerated the ripening of the crop. The seed and carvone yields were largest in the 30–60 kg ha −1 nitrogen treatments. Inverse effects of nitrogen rate on the amount of carvone per seed and on the amount of nitrogen per seed are discussed.