Publisher Summary At the macroscopic level the term bone is used for the organ bone as a distinct entity of the skeleton. At this level bone architecture describes the overall shape and geometry of bone as well as the differentiation into cancellous (also referred to as trabecular) and cortical bone. Typical parameters describing architecture are cortical thickness, moment of inertia and other geometrical measures. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole bone or of well-defined subvolumes is another important parameter. At the microscopic level, i.e., if the spatial resolution of the acquired images is better than 100μm, bone architectural assessment is predominantly associated with trabecular structure, i.e., the interconnecting lattice of bone tissue filled with marrow. Typical parameters are trabecular thickness and separation of trabeculae and parameters comprehensively describing the network architecture, such as the structure model index (SMI). Macroimaging of bone architecture employs x-ray-based imaging modalities either using planar methods such as conventional radiography and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), or volumetric methods such as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Methods of microimaging are: three-dimensional (3D) microcomputed tomography (μCT) and three-dimensional micromagnetic resonance imaging (μMRI). Although it is not precisely defined, the range between macro- and microimaging i.e., from approximately 100μm to 500 μm, is usually denoted as high-resolution CT (hrCT) and MRI (hrMRI) imaging for CT and MRI.