Abstract Injecting drug use and heterosexual contact are the major exposure categories for women acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk perception, perceived seriousness of HIV, drug use self-efficacy, sexual self-efficacy, and social support for HIV/AIDS risk behavior among female injecting drug users (IDUs). A random sample of 140 female IDUs was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Self-efficacy for preventive sexual behavior and social support were predictive of condom use with primary partners P = .01 and P = .001, respectively. Self-efficacy for preventive drug use was predictive of risky injection behavior ( P = .004) and risky injection location ( P = .003). The results suggest that HIV prevention programs targeting female IDUs should include strategies that incorporate their support networks and strengthen preventive self-efficacy. Brief intervention strategies that nurses can carry out with female IDUs are suggested.