Abstract Hydrogen generally causes lattice distortions and phase transformations when introduced into a metal matrix. The present contribution provides a report of first in situ investigations of hydrogen effects on the lattice of the austenite and the martensite phase in a supermartensitic stainless steel using hard synchrotron radiation for respective energy dispersion diffraction measurements. Lattice distortions, such as the planar spacing expansion, have been monitored during the complete hydrogen effusion process over 24h and are directly correlated to the dissolved hydrogen in the metal matrix. Among other results, it turned out that hydrogen at the introduced concentration level causes a reversible lattice expansion and after hydrogen effusion the lattice nearly regained its original dimensions. Hydrogen much more significantly affects the austenite phase with respect to lattice expansion than the martensite phase, but no phase transformations occur during the hydrogen desorption process.