Abstract Background Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and inflammation are two closely related entities. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082A/G, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms with DVT. Methods A case-control study was carried out in 660 patients with DVT and 660 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was applied to identify the polymorphisms mentioned. Results Patients with DVT had a significantly lower frequency of IL-10 -1082GG genotype [odds ratio (OR)=0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.39, 0.89; P=0.01] than healthy controls. When stratifying by family history of DVT, it was found that patients with positive family history of DVT had a significantly lower frequency of IL-10 -1082GG genotype (OR=0.13, 95% CI=0.02, 0.95; P=0.04). When stratifying by smoking status, presence of varicose veins, type 2 diabetes mellitus and any hormone administration before, no significant differences were found in any groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that IL-10 -1082A/G polymorphism associated with risk of DVT. However, no association of the IL-10 -592C/A or -819C/T polymorphism with DVT risk was found. Additional well-designed large studies were required for the validation of our results.