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Phytoestrogens and prostate cancer risk

Authors
Journal
Preventive Medicine
0091-7435
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
41
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.10.022
Keywords
  • Phytoestrogens
  • Isoflavonoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Lignans
  • Coumestans
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Epidemiological Study
  • Prospective Study
  • Case-Control Study
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Medicine

Abstract

Abstract Background Phytoestrogens are natural plant substances. The four main classes are isoflavones, flavonoids, coumestans, and lignans. Phytoestrogens have anti-carcinogenic potential. For evaluation of the effect of phytoestrogens on prostate cancer risk, we reviewed analytical epidemiological data. Methods Up to now, there are few studies that have assessed the direct relation between the individual dietary intake of soy products and other nutrients with phytoestrogens and the risk of prostate cancer. We decided to review analytical epidemiological studies providing data on (a) dietary soy intake or flavonoids intake, (b) urinary excretion of isoflavones or lignans, or (c) blood measurements of isoflavones or lignans. Soy is used as a marker for isoflavone intake. Results Overall, the results of these studies do not show protective effects. Only four of these studies are prospective, and none of them found statistically significant prostate cancer reductions. Two prospective studies measured flavonoid intake and one reported a preventive effect on prostate cancer for the assumption of myricetin. One study assessed enterolactone concentrations in three different countries and showed no reduction in prostate cancer occurrence. Conclusion Few studies showed protective effect between phytoestrogen intake and prostate cancer risk.

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