Abstract Peroxisome proliferators are a structurally diverse group of chemicals. They include fibrate hypolipidaemic drugs, phthalate ester plasticisers, phenoxy acid herbicides, azole antifungal drugs, and perfluorinated fatty acids. This presentation will focus on the common pleotropic responses produced by these compounds including hepatomegaly (hyperplasia and hypertrophy), activation of cell cycle S-phase ploidy changes, cytochrome P4504A1 induction, morphometric/biochemical analysis of peroxisome proliferation and stimulation of growth factors, and oncogene activation. Consideration will also be given to the role of recently described Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor in these diverse hepatic responses. Peroxisome proliferators are uniformly negative in a wide range of genotoxicity tests, but nevertheless are complete carcinogens, particularly in rodent liver. Mechanisms of nonmutagenic carcinogenesis will be discussed including the active oxygen hypothesis involving 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine adducts and the possibility of peroxisome proliferators promoting preexisting lesions by clonal expansion, eventually resulting in frank tumorigenesis. Finally, a consideration of the risk assessment of peroxisome proliferation to humans will be discussed.