Abstract In the past decade, rapid technical developments and advancements of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have revolutionized the preoperative imaging evaluation of thoracic vascular and tracheobronchial anomalies and abnormalities in infants and children. Multidetector computed tomography enables noninvasive, rapid, high-resolution, and 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of the thorax in pediatric patients that provides comprehensive preoperative surgical guidance for pediatric surgeons. With the increasing availability of MDCT and 3D imaging, a practical review is needed for the pediatric surgeon of the evolving role of these techniques in the preoperative evaluation of surgical lesions in infants and children. This article focuses on the review of advantages and disadvantages of MDCT in comparison to other imaging modalities, 2D and 3D imaging postprocessing techniques, and MDCT and 3D imaging appearance of various thoracic vascular and tracheobronchial anomalies and abnormalities in pediatric patients. The primary aim of this article was to facilitate the pediatric surgeons' ability to successfully incorporate MDCT and 3D imaging as a routine preoperative imaging tool for the evaluation of thoracic surgical lesions in infants and children.