The idea for this book originated when planning, organizing and carrying out field work for the first All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring (ATBI+M) pilot sites established in the National Parks Mercantour and Alpi Marittime (France/Italy) in 2007, as part of the activities of the EDIT (European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy: www.e-taxonomy.eu) network, supported for five years by the European Commission. One of the overall aims of the EDIT project is to better integrate taxonomic research with biodiversity conservation. To attain this objective, innovative and new methods and tools for inventorying and monitoring biodiversity have to be deployed (Häuser et al., 2007). Individual participants embarking on inventories as well as partners from the hosting national parks frequently asked the project coordinators which are the best-recommended or "standard" techniques and protocols for inventorying specific taxa or habitats. Formulating a response to these questions often was not straightforward as several approaches and methods are described in the, often scattered, literature. In order to provide ATBI+M participants, as well as other interested parties, with appropriate information, it was proposed that “field experiences” should be captured and made available for wider dissemination and use.