Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) promotes mononuclear phagocyte survival and proliferation. The transcription factor Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a key regulator of genes involved in M-CSF-induced mononuclear phagocyte survival and this study focused at identifying the mechanism of NF-κB transcriptional activation. Here, we demonstrate that M-CSF stimulated NF-κB transcriptional activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro-31-8220, the conventional PKCα/β inhibitor Gö-6976, overexpression of dominant negative PKCα constructs and PKCα siRNA reduced NF-κB activity in response to M-CSF. Interestingly, Ro-31-8220 reduced Ser276 phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 leading to decreased M-CSF-induced monocyte survival. In this report, we identify conventional PKCs, including PKCα as important upstream kinases for M-CSF-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation, NF-κB-regulated gene expression, NF-κB p65 Ser276 phosphorylation, and macrophage survival. Lastly, we find that NF-κB p65 Ser276 plays an important role in basal and M-CSF-stimulated NF-κB activation in human mononuclear phagocytes.