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3D Printing of Calcium Phosphate Ceramics for Bone Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery

Authors
  • Trombetta, Ryan1, 2
  • Inzana, Jason A.2, 3
  • Schwarz, Edward M.1, 2, 4
  • Kates, Stephen L.2, 5
  • Awad, Hani A.1, 2, 4
  • 1 University of Rochester, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Robert B. Goergen Hall, Rochester, NY, 14627, USA , Rochester (United States)
  • 2 University of Rochester Medical Center, Center for Musculoskeletal Research, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA , Rochester (United States)
  • 3 AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, Davos, 7270, Switzerland , Davos (Switzerland)
  • 4 University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Orthopedics, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA , Rochester (United States)
  • 5 Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA , Richmond (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jun 20, 2016
Volume
45
Issue
1
Pages
23–44
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10439-016-1678-3
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has emerged over the past 3 decades as a disruptive technology for rapid prototyping and manufacturing. Vat polymerization, powder bed fusion, material extrusion, and binder jetting are distinct technologies of additive manufacturing, which have been used in a wide variety of fields, including biomedical research and tissue engineering. The ability to print biocompatible, patient-specific geometries with controlled macro- and micro-pores, and to incorporate cells, drugs and proteins has made 3D-printing ideal for orthopaedic applications, such as bone grafting. Herein, we performed a systematic review examining the fabrication of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics by 3D printing, their biocompatibility in vitro, and their bone regenerative potential in vivo, as well as their use in localized delivery of bioactive molecules or cells. Understanding the advantages and limitations of the different 3D printing approaches, CaP materials, and bioactive additives through critical evaluation of in vitro and in vivo evidence of efficacy is essential for developing new classes of bone graft substitutes that can perform as well as autografts and allografts or even surpass the performance of these clinical standards.

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