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3D printing of biocompatible low molecular weight gels: Imbricated structures with sacrificial and persistent N-alkyl-d-galactonamides.

Authors
  • Andriamiseza, Faniry1
  • Bordignon, Delphine2
  • Payré, Bruno3
  • Vaysse, Laurence4
  • Fitremann, Juliette5
  • 1 Laboratoire des IMRCP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS UMR 5623, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, France. Electronic address: [email protected] , (France)
  • 2 Laboratoire des IMRCP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS UMR 5623, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, France. Electronic address: [email protected] , (France)
  • 3 Centre de Microscopie Electronique Appliquée à la Biologie (CMEAB), Faculté de Médecine Rangueil, Université de Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Bâtiment A5, R.D.C., 133 Route de Narbonne, 31400 Toulouse, France. Electronic address: [email protected] , (France)
  • 4 RESTORE Research Center, Université de Toulouse, INSERM 1301, CNRS 5070, EFS, ENVT, Toulouse, France. Electronic address: [email protected] , (France)
  • 5 Laboratoire des IMRCP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS UMR 5623, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, France. Electronic address: [email protected] , (France)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Feb 23, 2022
Volume
617
Pages
156–170
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2022.02.076
PMID: 35276518
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

We have shown earlier that low molecular weight gels based on N-heptyl-d-galactonamide hydrogels can be 3D printed by solvent exchange, but they tend to dissolve in the printing bath. We wanted to explore the printing of less soluble N-alkyl-d-galactonamides with longer alkyl chains. Less soluble hydrogels could be good candidates as cell culture scaffolds. N-hexyl, N-octyl and N-nonyl-d-galactonamide solutions in dimethylsulfoxide are injected in a bath of water following patterns driven by a 2D drawing robot coupled to a z-platform. Solubilization of the gels with time has been determined and solubility of the gelators has been measured by NMR. Imbricated structures have been built with N-nonyl-d-galactonamide as a persistent ink and N-hexyl or N-heptyl-d-galactonamide as sacrificial inks. Human mesenchymal stem cells have been cultured on N-nonyl-d-galactonamide hydrogels prepared by cooling or by 3D printing. The conditions for printing well-resolved 3D patterns have been determined for the three gelators. In imbricated structures, the solubilization of N-hexyl or N-heptyl-d-galactonamide occurred after a few hours or days and gave channels. Human mesenchymal stem cells grown on N-nonyl-d-galactonamide hydrogels prepared by heating-cooling, which are stable and have a fibrillar microstructure, developed properly. 3D printed hydrogels, which microstructure is made of micrometric flakes, appeared too fragile to withstand cell growth. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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