The assessment of the levels of IGF-1 and VEGF in the blood in premature with low and extremely low birth weight could contribute to the better knowledge of physiopathology of the ROP and/or to help to develop the methods of treatment of the disease. The aim of the study was to compare the levels of the IGF-1 and VEGF in the blood serum between a group of neonates born before 33 week of gestation and a group of term neonates. Material and methods The blood samples from umbilical artery were taken after delivery in the study group (45 preterm neonates born below 33 week of gestation) and in control group (7 healthy, term neonates) and than IGF-1 and VEGF levels were assessed. Results Significant differences in the IGF-1 i VEGF levels between both groups were found. Conclusions 1. Lower levels of IGF-1 and higher levels of VEGF in the study group of neonates can reflect current stage of the development of the premature and ongoing angiogenesis process. 2. Assessed IGF-1 and VEGF levels in the study group of neonates can serve as a reference values for the IGF-1 and VEGF levels measured in the following weeks of life of premature neonates.