Background Women with systolic heart failure (HF) demonstrate better survival than men. Whether sex differences occur in hemodynamics or measures of left ventricular (LV) function is not well understood. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a cohort who underwent evaluation by right heart catheterization ± micromanometer-tipped catheterization of the LV. Two groups, defined at the time of catheterization, were studied: normal LV (NLV) function or HF (LV ejection fraction <35%, New York Heart Association II-III symptoms). For each female, we identified 2 male controls matched for age and LV ejection fraction in the HF group. Results In the NLV group, we matched 73 men (56 ± 10 years) to 39 women (56 ± 10 years). In the HF group, we matched 71 men (57 ± 10 years) to 36 women (57 ± 10 years). In the NLV group, women had higher heart rate and lower right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Left ventricular peak systolic pressure was higher, and LV end-diastolic pressure was lower in women. In the HF group, no sex differences were observed in any hemodynamic measurement. In both groups, no sex differences were observed in isovolumic contractility or relaxation. Conclusions Sex differences in hemodynamics are observed in patients with NLV function but not with HF. The intrinsic or extrinsic factors responsible for sex differences observed in patients with NLV function may be eclipsed by the HF disease state or its treatment.