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Hydrodynamic effects of surfactants on the macromorphology of electrodeposited zinc and flow visualization:The flow-field throw

Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/0022-0728(88)85028-9
  • Chemistry


Abstract The macromorphological features of electrodeposited zinc that result from hydrodynamic flow conditions along a flat plate electrode (FPE) in a channel flow cell and on a rotating disk (RDE) as the mutual effects of the electric and flow field and the interfacial surface tension change imposed by the adsorption of strong surfactants, have been investigated using an acidic chloride solution (4.0 M ZnCl 2 + HCl) for the current density range of 10–100 mA cm −2. All the complex hydrodynamic characteristics of the reattaching flow and the presence of streamwise directed counter-rotating Taylor vortices behind the stagnation point and separation, with rather stabilized stream features in an admixture of strong fluorosurfactants, have been clearly outlined and marked by the macromorphology of three-dimensional relief imprints. The macromorphological features of relief striations in zinc electrodeposition mainly represent the competition between the flow- and electric-field strength and depend on the average current density, the rotation speed (RDE) and/or the linear flow velocity (FPE), the time of deposition, the ionic zinc content and electrolyte composition, the pH value, the hydrodynamic flow pattern and the hydrodynamic effect of surfactants, the latter being reflected in both the stabilization of systematic disturbances and perturbations within the boundary layer, and the interfacial surface tension traction. The macromorphological imprints of electrodeposited zinc within a certain current density range could be employed for both the instantaneous and cumulative (time sequence of photoimprints) electrochemical visualization method. A survey of the existing knowledge and explanations for corrugated electrodeposit growth and suppression is also given. The flow field throw as the hydrodynamic effect of surfactants in overcoming the locally higher current densities and the edge effect providing lateral electrogrowth has been identified.

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