Abstract The effects of long-chain cis-unsaturated fatty acids with different alkyl chain lengths and different numbers of double bonds on aggregation of bovine platelets and membrane fluidity were investigated. All the cis-unsaturated fatty acids tested inhibited aggregation and at the same time increased membrane fluidity in accordance with their inhibitory effects. The saturated fatty acids and trans-unsaturated fatty acid tested for comparison had much lower or no effects on aggregation and membrane fluidity. The inhibitory effects of mono cis-unsaturated fatty acids increased with increase of their alkyl chain length. cis-Unsaturated fatty acids with two or more double bonds had more inhibitory effects than mono-unsaturated fatty acids. The position of the double bonds had less influence than the number of double bonds. We also examined the effects of cis-unsaturated fatty acids on membrane fluidity with diphenylhexatriene and anthroyloxy derivatives of fatty acids as probes and observed increased fluidity to be considerable in the membrane. The alcohol analogs of cis-unsaturated fatty acids also inhibited aggregation and increased membrane perturbation. These results suggest that the inhibition of platelet aggregation by cis-unsaturated compounds is due to perturbation of the lipid layer.