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Innovation technique et genèse de l'entreprise. Quelques réflexions à partir de l'exemple de la métallurgie européenne (XIIIe-XVIe siècles)

Authors
Journal
Histoire économie et société
0752-5702
Publisher
CAIRN
Publication Date
Volume
20
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3406/hes.2001.2239

Abstract

Abstract This paper aims to show, in the case of the mining and metallurgy industry, how the process of technical innovation and the growth of demand make possible the emergence of new types of production and commercialization: this happened in the iron-making industry with the diffusion of Walloon processes throughout north-western Europe between 1450 and 1550. The mechanization of the forge resulted in rising production of iron and steel for the interregional and international markets, in an increasing use of wood, and in a global process of salarization of the iron-makers. The growing authority of the forge masters over the workers of smelting and hammering plants is the sign of the development of forges as industrial firms. At the same time, it is accompanied by strong intervention of the State and other public institutions, by way of orders, patents to protect innovations or even state-owned industrial factories.

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