The mitochondrial MDH isozymes in the scutellum of the mature maize (Zea mays L.) kernel are encoded by three independently inherited nuclear genes. Mdh1 is located on chromosome 8, close to the breakpoint (8L.35) of a waxy-marked reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 9. Mdh2 is located in the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 6. Mdh3 is on the long arm of chromosome 3, approximately 2.6 map units from sh2. A modifier of the mitochondrial MDH isozymes (Mmm) maps approximately 27.5 units proximal to Adh1 in the central portion of the long arm of chromosome 1. Independently assorting duplicate genes code for the soluble MDH isozymes. Mdh4 is located in the same region of chromosome 1 as Mmm, approximately 29 map units proximal to Adh1. Mdh5 maps approximately 20 units distal to a2 in the short arm of chromosome 5.——Intergenic and interallelic heterodimer formation occurs among gene products that occupy the same subcellular compartment. MDH isozymes were purified and analyzed by native-SDS two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proposed mitochondrial MDH intergenic heterodimer bands were found to be composed of two subunits, which differ in their migrations on SDS gels; whereas, genetically defined homodimers contained only one type of subunit.——This evidence is discussed in terms of two genetic models proposed for the maize mitochondrial MDH isozymes.