Tuberculosis (TB) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where it is closely associated with HIV/AIDS. Poor adherence to treatment is common despite various interventions aimed at improving treatment completion. Lack of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of barriers to and facilitators of, treatment adherence is currently a major obstacle to finding effective solutions. Nineteen electronic databases (1966â€“February 2005) were searched for qualitative studies on patientsâ€™, caregiversâ€™, or health care providersâ€™ perceptions of adherence to preventive or curative TB treatment with the free text terms â€˜â€˜Tuberculosis AND (adherence OR compliance OR concordance)â€™â€™. A meta-ethnographic approach was followed to synthesise findings across included studies. [PLoS Medicine, July 2007].